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REVIEW ARTICLES
Comprehensive treatment of endo-perio lesion: A case report
Shahabe Saquib, Nabeeh AlQahtani, Mukhatar Ahmed Javali
July-December 2016, 1(2):27-30
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291742  
Pulpal infection may cause a tissue destructive process that proceeds from the apical region of a tooth toward the gingival margin. The term “retrograde periodontitis” was suggested in order to differentiate this from marginal periodontitis in which the infection spreads from the gingival margin toward the root apex. Proper diagnosis of the various disorders affecting the periodontium and the pulp is important to exclude unnecessary and even detrimental treatment. This is a clinical case report of an endodontic–periodontic lesion in relation to lower centrals and left lateral incisor. Root canal treatment has been done with the respected teeth six months ago, but the lesion showed no sign of healing. Radiographic examination revealed peri-radicular radiolucency in relation to 31, 41, and 42. Periodontal flap surgery was performed with apicectomy and the defect was filled with bone graft. Patient reviewed for one year which showed uneventful healing and no recurrence of the lesion.
  511 64 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The influence of forward head posture on cervical proprioception in dentists
Ravi Shankar Reddy
January-June 2020, 5(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291956  
Objective: The study aims to determine the influence of FHP on cervical proprioception in dentists. Method: In the study, 84 dentists were divided into two groups based on their craniovertebral (CV) angle: the FHP group (44 subjects with mean age 34.95 ± 6.68 years and CV angle 49° or less) and a healthy group (40 subjects with mean age 29.80 ± 6.46 years, CV angle ≥ 49°). CV angle: an angle formed between a line extending from 7th cervical vertebrae (C7) to the tragus of the ear and a horizontal line passing through C7. The cervical Joint Position Error (JPE) testing is performed as an estimate of cervical proprioception in sagittal (flexion, extension) and transverse plane (rotation to the left and the right). Three trials of JPE’s were tested in each direction, and the mean of these errors is used for analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the FHP and healthy subjects in the cervical JPEs (p<0.001) in all four directions. There was a weak to moderate negative correlation between the CV angle and the JPEs tested. Conclusion: The dentists with FHP demonstrated reduced cervical proprioception. Changes in the length-tension relationship in cervical musculature due to FHP may affect cervical position sense. Also, cervical proprioception may become worse as the degree of FHP increases.
  477 59 -
Qualitative analysis of student perceptions assessing active learning methods in a therapeutics course
Abdulrahman Alsayari, Dalia Almaghasalah, Arwa Khaled, Yahya Alhamhoom, Asif Ansari Mohammad, Mohammed Ghazwani
July-December 2017, 2(2):8-17
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291941  
Objectives: To evaluate the implementation of active learning methods in a therapeutic course from students’ perspective. Methods: The project consisted of two phases of work: Phase I was a fieldwork, where students were exposed to the different active learning methods. Phase II was a feedback from students by interview through conducting focus groups, to assess their preference for each learning method. Results: The students regarded the newly implemented active learning methods as generally helpful in developing most of the skills required for the practice of pharmacy, but there were a number of suggestions for improvement. Conclusion: Students indicated that incorporation of these active learning methods resulted in better academic outcomes including in their examinations.
  487 26 -
A study of student awareness of radiation protection skills at jazan university
Nouf H Abuhadi
January-June 2019, 4(1):6-13
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.292033  
Objectives: To evaluate radiology students’ awareness of ionising radiation exposure and its related risks during common diagnostic imaging procedures, to evaluate students’ radiation protection knowledge for assessment of educational processes and clinical training. Materials & Methods: A total of 200 senior students at the Diagnostic Radiology Department were requested to complete a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions. The data were analysed using the statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS). Results: The response rate was 90.5% (181 students). Awareness level depended on student grade point average (GPA), age, and relevant courses attended in radiation. Gender and marital status did not predict awareness of radiation protection standards. Conclusion: Our results showed a general lack of knowledge regarding radiation protection for fourth level students, which slightly improved in the subsequent levels. Including specific courses of radiation protection for medical and dental students is highly recommended. Such courses will improve skills specific to professional handling of radioactivity as well as radiation awareness.
  447 43 -
LIP repositioning surgery and its sequelae in the treatment of a gummy smile: A case report
Saad M Alqahtani
January-June 2019, 4(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.292031  
Excessive gingival display, also known as “gummy smile” has several etiologies. A gummy smile is a drawback for the esthetics and social behavior of various patients. Lip repositioning surgery confers predictable results. However, lip repositioning surgery is indicated in patients with a hyperactive upper lip, while gummy smile owing to altered passive tooth eruption and vertical maxillary excess need to be addressed with crown lengthening and orthognathic surgeries, respectively. Lip repositioning surgery is an uncomplicated procedure, which reduces the muscular pull on the upper lip to achieve minimal display of dento-gingival unit while smiling. Nonetheless, few authors question the relapse of the lip position. This report describes a case showing satisfactory results with lip repositioning surgery and after 1 year follow-up shows a nonsignificant relapse in the position of the upper lip. Hence, lip repositioning surgery is a safe and predictable approach for gummy smiles with negligible relapse.
  449 29 -
Cemento-osseous dysplasia in the anterior mandible: A case of misdiagnosis
Abdulaziz S Abu-Melha
January-June 2018, 3(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291946  
Osseous dysplasia (Cemento-osseous dysplasias) is relatively common form of fibro osseous lesions (FOLs) in the tooth-bearing regions of the jaw bones. Clinically, most of the Osseous dysplasias (ODs) are asymptomatic and are accidently discovered during routine radiographic examinations. A proper diagnosis of OD is very crucial to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The histological appearance is similar to other fibro osseous lesions (FOLs) and in numerous cases; Osseous dysplasias have been misdiagnosed as periapical lesions (Periapical abscess, granuloma or cyst), and/or mismanaged by initiation of unnecessary endodontic and surgical interventions. We report a misdiagnosed case of Focal Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia and unnecessary endodontic treatment in a 48 years old woman due to similar radiographic appearance of the lesions during the osteolytic phase of Osseous Dysplasia. This unnecessary invasive treatment could have been minimized or avoided if standard protocols of pulp vitality and a radiographic interpretation were performed carefully.
  406 26 -
Social networking trends among female health college students in King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim Al-Shahrani, Rafi Ahmed Togoo, Shreyas Tikare, Amal Saeed Shiban Al-Shahrani, Noura Abdulaziz Abu-Melha, Zainab Ali Al-Qahtani
January-June 2016, 1(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291595  
Objective: The present research was to study the social networking trends among female health college students in KKU Abha, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A pretested questionnaire was developed consisting of 11 items concerning with individual’s usage of social media. All female students of colleges in King Khalid University were considered for the study. Results: A total of 466 female students participated in the research. 96% of the students had registered themselves at some social networking site. Whatsapp was found to be the most popular application (17.4%) followed by Twitter (16.2%), YouTube (15.2%), Google-plus (13%), Facebook (13%), Skype (10.7%) and others. Majority of students (64%) accessed Google for their academic assignments and information gathering.76% of students had practice of accessing to SNS on a daily basis. Majority (43%) of students’ accessed social networking sites late night before sleep or after college hours (32%).The most common reason for SNS usage was for Entertainment (45%). The Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the frequency of SNS usage and student’s average academic grades (r = 0.064, p = 0.174). Conclusions: The female students at the university are very active on SNS. The social media platforms are mainly used for social interactions or entertainment. There was no statistically significant correlation between social media usage and academic outcomes. Social media platforms should be considered as an effective and informal media in engaging students for academic purposes.
  399 33 -
Unique case of dental practice negligence using calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament: A case report
Adel S Alobaid, Rayan O Alnefaie, Mutassim A Elnager
January-June 2017, 2(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291935  
Safe dental practice is based on the rule of do no harm. Procedural errors in endodontics are mainly based on wrong case selection with underestimation of case difficulty. The aim of this report was to discuss a case of negligence in dental practice leading to multidisciplinary treatment and pain management approach. This case reported to emergency clinics at King Khalid University, College of Dentistry (KKUCOD) after an accident of overextrusion of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) from tooth # 22 extended distally to greater palatine foramen area without sinus communication. Patient pain was unbearable and needed strong acting pain medication. The tooth was treated with nonsurgical endodontic with buccal perforation repair followed by surgical endodontic to establish apical seal and remove the extruded material. Then a full thickness palatal flap was needed to remove the extended material. This approach was effective in alleviating patient pain. Such incidence could have been avoided if a safe practice rules were strictly followed thus case difficulty assessment form must be used in such cases.
  377 21 -
Radiation dose measurements in intraoral and panoramic dental radiography in the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia
Hussain M Almohiy, Khalid I Hussein, Mohammed S Alqahtani, Mohammed K Saeed, El Hussain Hassan, Abdullah Ali M. Asiri, Mohammed Saad, Emad M Mukhtar, Mohamed Adam, Madshush Alshahrani, Haney A Alsleem, Muhammed Ajmal, Ibrahim Alshahrani, Nouf Abuhadi
January-June 2020, 5(1):39-46
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291958  
Objective: This study aims to estimate patient radiation doses for intraoral and panoramic dental radiography in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: For intraoral units, the radiation doses were measured in terms of incident air kerma, Ki, and the detector was placed at 50 cm from the focus point. For panoramic dental radiography, the radiation doses were measured in terms of air Kerma-area product, PKA, using a calibrated CT ionization chamber. Results: For intraoral, the values for the estimated incidence of air kerma, Ki, ranged from 1.25 to 4.61 mGy (average: 2.55 mGy). For panoramic, the values for estimated Kerma-area product, PKA, values ranged from 79.5 to 122.1 mGy.cm2 (average: 99 mGy.cm2) for adults and ranged from 43.3 to 80.2 mGy.cm2 (average: 58.5mGy.cm2) for paediatrics. Conclusion: The study’s outcomes were compared with previous studies from other countries, indicating similar or slightly higher values. These results could serve as baseline data for radiation protection optimization and the development of national diagnostic reference levels in Saudi Arabia.
  355 36 -
Health related quality of life of adolescent school aged students in southwestern Saudi Arabia
Awad Saeed Alsamghan, Abdullah Moraya Assiri, Shehata Farag, Safar Abadi Al-Saleem, Mohamed Abadi Al-Saleem
January-June 2020, 5(1):19-25
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291955  
Objectives: The present work aimed to measure the quality of life among adolescents in Abha City in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed targeting all male and female students enrolled in Abha secondary schools. The Arabic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (condensed edition) was used. Results: The study included 400 students. The reported average score of quality of life ranged from 60.6 for the physical health domain to 70.8 for the environmental domain. Factors that significantly affect the physical health domain were age, gender, nationality, mothers’ education, and monthly income. Regarding the psychological health domain, the significant determinants were age, gender, birth order, parental status, and income. As for the social relationship domain, the only significant factor was age. Regarding the environment domain, the significant determinants were birth order and income. Conclusion: The study augments evidence to boost relations between individual characters, lifestyle health behaviors, and quality of life among adolescents so that health managers, health instructors, and health advocates can create and execute relevant plans and services to specific groups to improve their quality of life.
  342 36 -
CASE REPORTS
Application of topical timolol 0.5% solution for management of rosacea-related flushing and erythema: A case report
Tahani S Magliah, Esraa Turkistani
January-June 2017, 2(1):32-34
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291936  
Rosacea is a common chronic skin condition that affects the face, characterized by flushing, redness, pimples, pustules and dilated blood vessels. Some treatment options for rosacea can improve symptoms and sometimes control the disease from getting worse. A female Saudi patient aged 41 years presented with flushing for the past two months. She has been diagnosed as a case of erythrematotelangiectatic rosacea, for which she received metronidazole topical gel twice daily, but she developed skin irritation after two weeks’ application. Topical timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution 0.5% (one drop on each side of the face over the cheeks, twice per day for 8 weeks) was tried with her. Eight weeks later, the patient showed marked improvement. She denied complaining of skin irritation, flushing attacks, redness or any medication-related side effects. No systemic symptoms due to topical application were documented. She also expressed her satisfaction with treatment. Topical timolol (0.5%) solution can provide subjective improvement in cases of erythrematotelangiectatic rosacea associated with flushing and erythema, with no documented systemic or local side effects. However, further studies are still needed to settle its efficacy among patients with different phases of rosacea.
  324 28 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Patterns and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in a tertiary-care centre in the southern region of Saudi Arabia
Ali Al Bshabshe, Shahid Aziz, Abeer Aslouf, Rawan Hadi, Hayfa Al-Alfard, Nouf AlQahtani, Mariam Suhluli, Fahad Aljarad, Asmaa Almalky
July-December 2019, 4(2):39-46
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.292037  
Objective: To study patterns and outcomes of IHCA. Setting: Tertiary care centre in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Design: Retrospective case-series study. Methods: Patients aged ≥12 years exhibiting IHCA and subjected to the hospital protocol including CPR from January 2014 to July 2017 were enrolled. Results: The study included 700 patients with a mean age of 59 years (range, 12–103 years; 59% males). Cardiac arrest occurred in 93% of patients, while 7% presented with respiratory arrest. The majority (94%) of cardiac arrest cases were asystole, followed by ventricular fibrillation (3%), pulseless electrical activity (2%), and pulseless ventricular tachycardia (1%). Of the arrest rhythms, 4% were classified as shockable. Overall return to spontaneous circulation occurred in 36.9% of cases. A logistic regression model revealed that age, need of mechanical ventilation, and CPR duration were the most significant predictors of survival among the arrested patients. Conclusions: Asystole was the predominating arrest rhythm in patients with IHCA. CPR duration, age, and need of mechanical ventilation are the main predictors of survival.
  273 33 -
Patients’ perception towards comprehensive model of dental care delivery at a teaching institute of Saudi Arabia
Mohammad Shahul Hameed, Ali Azhar Dawasaz, Khalid Mohammed Altali, Mohammed Shaya Almazni, Mohammed Abdullah Asirri, Abdulrhman Saad Ali Alqhtani
July-December 2019, 4(2):25-31
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.292035  
Objective: To evaluate patients’ perception and satisfaction with regard to the treatment provided by final year dental students enrolled in comprehensive care courses at King Khalid University College of Dentistry Clinics, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 120 patients (mean age, 28.3 years; age range, 15–57 years) who underwent comprehensive dental treatment provided by final year dental students were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire designed in English and Arabic was employed, and the level of patient satisfaction was evaluated using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5 (strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree). Results: The majority of the patients (>90%) appeared to be satisfied with the attitude, cheerful disposition, and competency of the dental students. More than 75% of the patients were satisfied with the manner in which the procedures were performed (painless and adequate infection control). Nonetheless, a proportion (25%) of the patients was dissatisfied with the time taken for the treatment procedures and facilities provided at the hospital. Conclusion: Most of the patients were happy with the services provided by the final year dental students at the clinic. However, addressing issues such as waiting time, appearance of waiting area, and time taken for the dental procedures may help improve the perception and satisfaction of the patients with regard to the services provided at our college.
  277 26 -
Unconventional single - visit interim prosthesis – A case report
SH Hassan Wijdan, Adel M Abdelmonem, Muhammad Farhan Khan, Saurabh Chaturvedi
January-June 2019, 4(1):25-30
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.292032  
Replacement of missing anterior teeth is of utmost importance for esthetics and function. Fixed partial dentures (FPDs) are the most commonly used prostheses but are usually associated with failure either due to faulty fabrication, inadequate retention, or negligence in maintenance by the patient. During fabrication of new FPDs, transitional prostheses have an important role in providing esthetics and function to the patient. The aim of the current work was to provide adequate esthetics to a patient during the treatment period. During the transition phase of fabrication, a new fixed partial denture, patients should be provided with an interim prosthesis. In this case report, interim prosthesis was fabricated using acrylic resin. The contours of existing fixed prosthesis were duplicated, and an unconventional interim prosthesis was fabricated in single-visit for a young adult female patient with failed anterior fixed partial dentures. Step by step treatment was carried out to fabricate the interim prosthesis for the patient. The interim prosthesis fabricated was clinically acceptable. After insertion of the prosthesis, the patient and her family were satisfied with the esthetics. During follow-up as well, the patient was satisfied with the prosthesis and did not show any discomfort. The unconventional approach for the fabrication of an interim prosthesis used herein for a young adult female patient fulfilled the requirements of the patient and successfully protected the tissues during the fabrication of the final prosthesis.
  261 38 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Isolation of acanthamoeba species from fresh water sources isn southern regions of Saudi Arabiass
Ahmed Mossa Al-Hakami, Shubayli Hassan Al-Shehri, Saud Mohammed Al-Shahrani, Mohammed Abdullah Al-Qarni, Ali Saeed Kadasah, Saeed Abdulrahman Alghamdi, Mohamed El-Amin Hamid
July-December 2016, 1(2):1-5
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291739  
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Acanthamoeba species and other FLAs in freshwater sources in southern regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to estimate the prevalence of their existence in these areas. Methods: Water samples from both fresh water course and hot springs (n = 15) were collected from five different zones in Aseer region, southern western parts of the kingdom. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba species and other FLAs were carried out from these water sources (fresh water course and hot spring). The methods included filtration, in vitro culture and incubation for up to three weeks for the selected samples according to standard methods. Results: Examination of water samples by direct microscopic methods showed no amoebic parasites among all of the 15 samples collected from five different sites. However, when the water samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar (NNA), four (26.7%) of the 15 samples showed growth of Acanthamoeba species. Principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that the water bodies/ sources that were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. shared a common natural characteristic that the water bodies were exposed to contamination. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that Acanthamoeba spp. were prevalent in some sites (3 out 5 sites were positives; 60%), low in two sites (1 out 3 samples) while absent in two sites (0 out of six samples). More comprehensive research is needed to find out the true prevalence of these parasites and factors affecting their existence.
  258 34 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An adjusted h-index: A new recipe to evaluate the researcher's productivity
Anwar Hamdi
January-June 2016, 1(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291601  
Objectives: To present an equation that will solve some of the problems related to the utilization of h-index in researcher’s evaluation. Methods: Adjusted h-index TOTAL = (Ad h-index1) + (Ad h-index2) + (Ad h-index3) and so on till (Ad h-index N) (N = Number of last publication). (Ad h-index1: for the First (1) publication); (Ad h-index1) = (A1)*(B1)*(C1)/(D1); A1 = H –index of the journal where the publication (1) had been published; B1 = the number of citations for publication (1); C1 = {(number of authors +1) – (order of author)}/(number of authors for publication 1); D1 = 1 + current year-year of publication (1). Results: The obtained results enlightening the superiority of the new equation to furnish the appropriate recognition to a scientist. Conclusion: The proposed equation will solve many of the problems linked to the h-index.
  265 26 -
Musculoskeletal disorders among ophthalmologists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study
Abdulrahman M Alamri, Jaya Shanker Tedla, Irshad Ahmad, Abdullah Laftal, Abdulhamid Al Ghamdi
January-June 2018, 3(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291947  
Objective: This study aimed to determine the most common musculoskeletal disorders among ophthalmologists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Ophthalmologists throughout the Kingdom were contacted by mail or by person. After obtaining their informed consent, we requested them to fill the Health Status Questionnaire. Results: Out of the 330 ophthalmologists contacted, 150 of them responded, but 43 provided insufficient data and 15 were practicing abroad and they were excluded. The remaining 92 surveys were analyzed for this study. Most of the ophthalmologists complained of low back pain (48%) and neck pain (40%). Other common areas of pain reported were that of the shoulders (27%), mid back (23%), upper back (16%), knee (16%), and gluteal region (15%). Conclusion: The common musculoskeletal disorders among ophthalmologists were found to be low back pain and neck pain. Most of the ophthalmologists believed that abnormal posture during surgery and lack of exercise are the most common reasons for their pain. Many of them reported that pain affected both their professional and personal lives.
  264 21 -
Dermatologists’ knowledge towards computed tomography radiation dose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Hend M Al Atif
January-June 2020, 5(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291961  
Objective: To assess the knowledge of Saudi dermatologists regarding protection against hazards of ionizing radiation during computed tomography (CT) procedure. Methods: It was a cross-sectional research design, comprising of dermatologists. A study questionnaire was designed and developed by the researcher, which included personal characteristics of the participants and statements on their knowledge regarding risks of exposing patients to ionizing radiation during radiological investigations. Results: This study included 120 dermatologists. The majority of participants (93.3%) did not attend any course on protection against ionizing radiation. Only 19.2% were familiar with the ALARA principle, while 51.7% were aware of a link between radiation exposure and increased risk of developing cancer. Recommended dose limits (1.7%) concern about radiation doses delivered to patients (31.79%) from requested CT, and alternative imaging investigations (80%) other than CT known to the participants, was found unsatisfactory. Most participants (86.7%) had poor knowledge regarding exposure to ionizing radiation. Attending courses on radiation protection was significantly associated with better knowledge (p<0.001). Conclusion: Knowledge of most Saudi dermatologists regarding hazards of ionization radiation is poor. This can be attributed to their lack of exposure to any courses on radiation protection. Awareness of Dermatologists can be done by conducting more workshops and associated seminars, in order to enhance their knowledge regarding this issue.
  242 40 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: A literature review
Abdulaziz Alshahrani
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.292029  
One of the most feared complications after orthodontic treatment is the external root resorption. Root resorption leads to shortening of root and thus, the integrity of teeth arch is broken down. Both the cervical and apex zones of the roots can be affected by it due to orthodontic forces involved in the tooth movement. The future of the teeth involved may also be compromised due to orthodontic treatment. It is necessary that the patient is pre-informed about the root resorption’s risks as a result of orthodontic treatment. It is possible to detect the orthodontic-induced root resorption both during the active phase of treatment and after the orthodontic treatment. The degree and severity of orthodontic-induced root resorption are dependent on a number of factors involving environmental factors and the host himself. The paper talks about the root resorption, its degree of severity, mechanism, detection methods, and significant correlation with individual susceptibility, tooth structure, fixed appliance treatment, orthodontic tooth movement, orthodontic force, and treatment duration.
  249 26 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in treating pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis: The Aseer Region experience
Nasser A Fageeh
January-June 2016, 1(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291593  
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in treating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in Aseer Region children, and to look at the most likely etiologies that might be attributed to the need of surgical intervention in these children. Methods: Hospital charts for 47 children underwent FESS for CRS were retrospectively reviewed. We looked at the demographic information, clinical presentation, preoperative CT-scan reports and indications for the surgical procedure. Exclusion criteria include cases of FESS done by other surgeons, children below 4years and above 15 years, allergic fungal sinusitis, cystic fibrosis, mucocele and cases of antro-choanal polyps. Results: The majority of patients 38 (81%) presented with CRS were under the age of 8 years. The mean age was 6.5 years at presentation. There were 31 (66 %) males and 16 (34)% females. The persistent nasal discharge was the main symptom in 38 (81%) of the children. Eight (17%) children only presented with an associated nasal obstruction that was attributed directly to adenoid hypertrophy. Nineteen (40.4%) patients had obstructive anatomical variants and 28 (59.6%) patients were diagnosed having allergic rhinitis. Forty- one (87.2%) patient improved and required no further treatment and the remaining 6 (12.8%) patients required revision. Conclusions: Results of the present study are commensurate with findings from prior research in that they confirm that the FESS procedure is recommended to those who fail medical therapy and continue to have bothersome symptoms. Congenital anatomical obstruction (concha bullosa and Haller cells) followed by allergic rhinosinusitis havebeen found to be the most common etiological factors among the experimental group of children treated surgically.
  236 27 -
Reliability and validity of light-based screening techniques in detection of oral premalignant lesions
Sultan Mohammed Kaleem, Shaik Mohammed Asif, Mohammad Zahir Kota, Abdul Kareem, Ali Othman, Mohammed Alhusin, Ali Hudian
January-June 2018, 3(1):13-20
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291943  
Objective: To assess and create awareness towards risk factors like Kath chewing and other tobacco related habits and prevalence of premalignant lesions and early detection through light based Screening tool. Methodology: -First stage comprised of an interview to get demographic and preliminary data for the study. In the second stage, the entire recruited participants underwent an oral examination, and suspected lesions were further seen by specialist dental surgeon. Exclusion is done by a specialist dentist to group them into clinical types based on clinical provisional diagnosis and are referred for histopathologic examination for further management. Third stage all suspected red and white lesions, inconspicuous lesions are screened by Acetic acid and VElscope to identify & confirm visible changes which required histopathological examination for further definitive treatment options. Result: 75% study subjects showed Aceto-whitening, 9.3% subjects showed negative result and 11.4% subjects showed false positive results and 2.8% projected as No Abnormality Detected in acetic acid test. In VElscope examination, 65.6% Showed Positive Dark areas, followed by 34.3 % False Positive results. There were no negative finding. Positive Predictive Value stands more with age old Acetic acid test (75%) when compared with advance methods like VELscope (65.6%). Conclusion: The oral cavity should be carefully examined in tobacco users. Any changes in color or texture of oral mucosa should arouse suspicion of the presence pre malignant lesions and/or oral cancer. Devices like VELscope can be used as a diagnostic aid for identification of these lesions. However, we have to realize that still the histopathological examination is the most accurate method to confirm the diagnosis.
  245 17 -
Attitudes and perceptions of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance. A study in aseer region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Khaled M Alakhali
July-December 2016, 1(2):6-11
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291745  
Purpose: The aim of this study was to study and explore the attitudes, perceptions, and dispensing habits of community pharmacist about antibiotic usage and microbial resistance. Material/Methods: It is a descriptive study conducted during April 2015 - July 2015in community pharmacies located in multiple places of Southern region of Saudi Arabia. 120 pharmacists were selected randomly and were invited to participate in the study by structured interview answering the question in the questionnaire. Results: The results of the present study included from both the chain pharmacies (n=84) and single pharmacies (n=36). Most of them had a Bachelor of Pharmacy (80.8%) and few had Pharm.D. (19.2%) degree. Attitudes related to the problem of resistance were attributed external responsibility, to patients, to physicians, to other pharmacies. Some attitudes were identified that could lead to antibiotic dispensing without a prescription. These were commercial interest and pressure from the patient. Conclusions: To conclude the present study, the community pharmacist had positive attitude towards improving antibiotic use and bacterial resistance. However, we are of opinion that strong regulation coupled with education intervention both to the pharmacist and public would be the way forward to tackle this issue of fight against antimicrobial resistance
  236 24 -
Knowledge, attitude, awareness, and motivation of blood donation among academic staff in health colleges in the southern region of Saudi Arabia
Hassan A Hamali
July-December 2018, 3(2):1-5
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291948  
Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate and evaluate the knowledge, attitude, awareness, and motivation about blood donation among academic staff in health colleges in Southern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in two universities in the Southern region of Saudi Arabia. The participants were the academic staff in health colleges at King Khalid University, Abha, and Jazan University, Jazan, during 2016. A validated, well-structured questionnaire was used to collectdata. Bivariate logistic regression analysis and odds ratio (OR) were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, awareness, and motivation about blood donation among the study participants. Results: The results showed vast knowledge about blood groups among academic staff, which was significantly associated with their educational level (OR, 4.161; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.313— 7.484). Knowledge of the Rhesus blood group system is highly significantly associated with age and educational level of academic staff (OR, 0.018; 95% CI, 0.002–0.142 and OR, 0.311;95% CI, 0.1500.643). Awareness of the minimum requirements of blood donation is significantly associated with educational level and profession among academic staff (OR, 1.919;95% CI, 1.482-2.485 and OR, 1.258;95% CI, 1.059-1.494). Conclusion: This study provides a deep insight into the blood donation process among academic staff members in health colleges. The outcome of the study currentreflects an extensive knowledge and positive attitude toward blood donation. The academic staff could play a key role in increasing the awareness about blood donation among their students, which could possibly reflect on the society.
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Dental students awareness towards research at King Khalid University, College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia
Zuhair Motlak Alkahtani
January-June 2020, 5(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291960  
Objectives: To evaluate the attitude toward and knowledge of dental research among dental students in a teaching institute in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted at the King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia, from July 2018 to January 2019. A total of 137 final year dental students and interns were provided with an online survey questionnaire designed in English and Arabic. Results: Ninety (males, 64; females, 26) students and interns responded to the questionnaire. More than half of the participants showed a positive attitude towards the importance of research and its incorporation in the dental curriculum. However, the majority of the students and interns demonstrated limited knowledge about research activities. Conclusion: The students and interns in this cohort demonstrated moderate attitudes towards and limited knowledge of research. The provision of intensive training and adequate support in research activities at the undergraduate level may help improve the perception of dental students towards research.
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Cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosa during normal hormonal turnovers in healthy young menstruating women
Usha Balan, Master Luqman, Abdelnasser Mohamed M. Soliman, Hussain Almubarak
July-December 2018, 3(2):8-13
DOI:10.4103/1658-743X.291953  
Oral mucous membrane is an excellent indicator of the constitutional state of a patient. The oral mucosa is under tropic influence of various hormones and thus reflects the systemic status of an individual. Very few cytomorphometric studies are done to evaluate the role of sex hormones on oral mucosa. This study was done to determine the morphometric changes in a cell and nuclear diameter of exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa during the course of normal menstrual cycle in healthy women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether oral smears reflect hormonal state of menstrual cycle. In this study consisting of 40 study subjects and 20 control subjects, smears were collected from buccal mucosa twice per week for a period of three months. Morphometric analysis of the cell and nuclear diameter was done and results were statistically analysed. Cell diameter showed significant changes during various phases of the menstrual cycle of healthy young women. In Comparison of both study and control groups, no significant changes were seen in cell and nuclear diameter of the exfoliated cells. The present study showed changes in cell diameter of the study group which could be related to the role of female sex hormones.
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